Confirmatory Factor Analysis  
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Factor analysis is a statistical method that is used to determine the number of underlying dimensions contained in a set of observed variables and to identify the subset of variables that corresponds to each of the underlying dimensions. The underlying dimensions are referred to as continuous latent variables or factors. The observed variables are referred to as factor indicators. There are two types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

CFA is appropriate in situations where the dimensionality of a set of variables for a given population is already known because of previous research. The task is not to determine the dimensionality of a set of variables or to find the pattern of the factor loadings. Instead, CFA may be used to investigate whether the established dimensionality and factor-loading pattern fits a new sample from the same population. This is the confirmatory aspect of the analysis. CFA may also be used to investigate whether the established dimensionality and factor-loading pattern fits a sample from a new population. In addition, the factor model can be used to study the characteristics of individuals by examining factor variances and covariances/correlations. Factor variances show the degree of heterogeneity of a factor. For example, males in their mid-twenties may be less homogeneous with respect to a factor such as alcohol abuse than females and therefore have a larger factor variance. Factor correlations show the strength of association between factors.

CFA is characterized by restrictions on factor loadings, factor variances, and factor covariances/correlations. CFA requires at least m2 restrictions where m is the number of factors. This can be compared to EFA where exactly m2 restrictions are placed. Unlike EFA, CFA can include correlated residuals that can be useful for representing the influence of minor factors on the variables. A set of background variables can be included as part of a CFA. This model is referred to as the MIMIC model. The MIMIC model can include direct effects, the effect of a background variable on a factor indicator, and indirect effects, the effect of a background variable on a factor indicator via the factor.

Mplus can estimate CFA models and CFA models with background variables for a single or multiple groups. Factor indicators for CFA models can be continuous, censored, binary, ordered categorical (ordinal), counts, or combinations of these variable types. When factor indicators are all continuous, Mplus has seven estimator choices: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum likelihood with robust standard errors and chi-square (MLR, MLF, MLM, MLMV), generalized least squares (GLS), and weighted least squares (WLS) also referred to as ADF. When at least one factor indicator is binary or ordered categorical, Mplus has seven estimator choices: weighted least squares (WLS), robust weighted least squares (WLSM, WLSMV), maximum likelihood (ML), maximum likelihood with robust standard errors and chi-square (MLR, MLF), and unweighted least squares (ULS). When at least one factor indicator is censored, unordered categorical, or a count, Mplus has six estimator choices: weighted least squares (WLS), robust weighted least squares (WLSM, WLSMV), maximum likelihood (ML), and maximum likelihood with robust standard errors and chi-square (MLR, MLF).
Thread (Start New Thread) Last Post Last Poster Posts
Confirmatory factor analysis10-21-13  5:04 pmBengt O. Muthen505
Tests of model fit9-30-13  1:43 pmLinda K. Muthen264
EFA in CFA Framework using Dichotomous Variables5-21-12  11:10 amLinda K. Muthen22
MGROUP Modelling & Mean-Structures10-14-13  9:41 amLinda K. Muthen160
Fitting a measurement model in a multi-level analysis1-20-06  12:29 pmeric duku12
An indicator with three categories5-05-08  4:19 pmLinda K. Muthen14
Multigroup analysis versus MIMIC model 6-27-13  6:51 pmAna Maria del Rio Go87
Factor analysis df6-02-11  3:51 pmBengt O. Muthen28
Modification Indices1-06-13  5:21 pmBengt O. Muthen65
Obtaining scaled chi-square difference test11-26-12  8:31 amLinda K. Muthen93
Chi-Square Diff Testing Using the Satorra-Bentler Scaled Chi-Square10-08-13  9:40 amLinda K. Muthen82
Chi-Square Difference Testing Using the SB Scaled Chi-Square5-21-02  11:21 amLen Burns1
Confirmatory factor analysis7-03-12  10:48 amLinda K. Muthen35
Cronbach's alpha etc..3-08-13  6:11 amBengt O. Muthen10
General-factor, specific-factor modeling10-29-12  11:58 amLinda K. Muthen17
3 dimensional data9-16-11  7:56 amcecilia 9
Factor structure and stability of a scale in a RCT6-09-11  6:26 amLinda K. Muthen4
How to compute composite reliability6-26-13  3:01 pmGwo-Bao Liou45
StdYX greater than 1 leads residual variance negative9-10-12  11:55 amTim Cupery7
Error Message9-23-13  1:44 pmLinda K. Muthen53
Loading coefficients2-25-12  7:48 amLinda K. Muthen27
Interaction terms11-28-03  10:34 ambmuthen2
'Nestedness'8-11-13  12:10 pmBengt O. Muthen42
Configural invariance with M Plus10-21-13  4:57 pmLinda K. Muthen47
MIMIC modeling with 2 timepoints8-09-10  5:49 pmLinda K. Muthen14
Allowing for correlation among error terms in manifest variables in...12-01-12  4:50 pmBengt O. Muthen10
Skewness10-11-13  5:30 pmLinda K. Muthen49
CFA v EFA3-15-12  7:03 pmLinda K. Muthen26
Stepwise regression7-06-11  12:28 pmMartin Ratzmann13
Count and categorical indicators7-16-12  12:26 pmlaura skriner38
Correlation between factors7-01-13  5:20 amLinda K. Muthen66
Obtaining factor scores9-25-13  4:21 pmLinda K. Muthen209
Testing Restrictive Invariance Hypotheses4-26-13  7:12 amLinda K. Muthen49
Second order factors5-15-13  7:41 amH Steen76
Nonlinear Factor Analysis10-11-10  11:18 amLinda K. Muthen14
Testing the equality of covariance matrices10-20-13  4:08 pmAlison Kramer-Kuhn25
Satorra Bentler chi-square correction for non-normality3-06-06  10:48 ampoker casino5777
Scale Factors for Mgroup CFA9-23-04  12:33 pmEric Turkheimer1
Item Parcels6-28-11  5:37 amLinda K. Muthen4
Polychoric correlations and ULS5-27-08  9:03 amLinda K. Muthen10
Construct validiy with CFA-SEM10-13-04  4:53 pmbmuthen4
Factor loadings1-13-13  12:21 amsaba kakapour52
Applicability of CFA3-06-06  10:45 ampoker casino1071
Linearity of effects10-17-04  12:28 pmbmuthen4
Monte Carlo Models2-07-13  9:47 amLinda K. Muthen23
Interpretation of factor score determinacy coefficient11-21-12  3:35 pmBengt O. Muthen25
RMSEA in CFA using WLSMV estimation6-25-10  10:02 amLinda K. Muthen6
Individual Factor loading matrix as input1-20-05  7:47 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Power Analysis in CFA4-21-10  9:56 amLinda K. Muthen36
Mean Structures in CFA1-24-06  1:24 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Negative Residual Variance10-19-11  6:26 amLinda K. Muthen33
Polyserial vs. biserial correlations9-24-13  11:29 amLinda K. Muthen12
Estimators and stratified sampling3-02-05  6:25 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Thresholds11-28-11  11:29 amLinda K. Muthen8
Hiearchical CFA10-17-08  8:33 amLinda K. Muthen7
Batch processing: chi-squared values4-09-05  3:44 amLinda K. Muthen2
Range of Factors4-13-05  11:14 pmBMuthen2
Error Message - Categorical variable S1 contains less than 2 catego...12-06-12  2:17 amSarah Moens13
Test for skewness and kurtosis5-09-13  2:24 pmLinda K. Muthen12
Chi-square difference testing using MLMV9-13-05  4:33 pmbmuthen8
Measurement Invariance across groups10-16-13  12:31 ammarlies 98
Monte Carlo Studies5-25-12  3:54 pmLinda K. Muthen15
Residual correlations 9-18-07  4:24 amLinda K. Muthen4
Item Level CFA with SEM6-29-10  9:54 amLinda K. Muthen9
Correlations between factors2-19-10  6:32 pmLinda K. Muthen7
Analzing residuals8-14-05  2:28 pmLinda K. Muthen2
WLSMV5-31-13  9:36 amGarett Howardson58
Factor interactions8-16-05  11:39 pmAnonymous3
Standard errors of parameter estimates8-23-05  8:54 pmbmuthen2
Monte Carlo -style analyses query9-21-05  7:29 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multigroup CFA with different variable sets10-08-05  1:54 pmbmuthen2
Non Positive Definite Matrix2-12-13  6:08 amLinda K. Muthen8
Multicollinearity in Confirmatory Factor Analysis.3-14-06  9:17 amBengt O. Muthen6
2nd-order CFA with complex sample12-14-05  6:41 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Model Fit Chi-Square in MPLUS versus LISREL or SAS12-16-05  9:58 amChris Schatschneider3
Multiple group factor invariance10-09-13  12:53 pmSabrina Thornton46
Pre- and post-treatment means, mediated paths6-09-09  12:12 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Questions about Interactions12-30-05  8:25 amLinda K. Muthen2
Sample size by Monte Carlo simulation8-01-06  11:22 amLinda K. Muthen4
Setting factor variance to 1 in mplus4-25-13  8:36 amLinda K. Muthen22
Output question2-02-06  12:33 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Modification indices, TECH2, and LM test5-12-10  11:37 amLinda K. Muthen8
EFA with ordered categorical variables2-18-06  8:10 pmEWickwire3
Pattern and structure coefficients in CFA2-20-06  6:42 pmbmuthen7
Intercept in the StdYX column2-23-06  8:24 amanonymous3
When to use sample size adjusted BIC?2-23-06  10:39 amLinda K. Muthen2
No standard error presented7-02-13  4:59 amJMC7
Robust Statistics3-21-13  4:18 pmBengt O. Muthen4
DIFFTEST9-24-13  11:30 amLinda K. Muthen13
Comparing CFA models1-10-13  11:37 amTrang Q. Nguyen22
CI for ratio of two factor loadings6-23-06  9:11 amLinda K. Muthen8
Chi-square difference test using WLSMV 11-18-09  6:05 amSanja Franic6
Restricting residual variances to be positive4-19-06  6:35 amLinda K. Muthen4
Higher-order model comparison5-01-06  11:59 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA for repeated measures8-03-11  3:18 pmLinda K. Muthen13
Group size in MCFA5-18-06  6:51 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multiple group CFA when using MIXTURE COMPLEX1-05-13  6:30 amLinda K. Muthen32
Twin Study10-11-09  10:34 amLinda K. Muthen9
Comparing correlations -- output vs Tech 49-30-08  8:41 amLinda K. Muthen4
Non-Convergence7-30-13  5:40 amBengt O. Muthen6
Measurement invariance across groups and time10-03-13  10:24 amLinda K. Muthen30
Estimator10-30-09  9:25 amLinda K. Muthen4
Degrees of Freedom8-27-13  2:21 pmLinda K. Muthen5
CFA using multi matrix sampling data9-10-12  6:57 pmBengt O. Muthen4
How to interpret Multiple Group CFA output9-30-12  10:36 amLinda K. Muthen14
CFA testing equality of factor means across groups8-23-06  7:09 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Nested CFAs create linear dependency?2-16-07  9:53 pmRichard E. Zinbarg11
Schmid-Lieman Transformations9-06-06  10:22 amRichard E. Zinbarg2
A few problems9-11-06  5:54 pmRichard E. Zinbarg4
Metric of factor loadings10-01-06  11:22 amBengt O. Muthen2
Measurement equivalent/invariance1-22-13  1:59 pmLinda K. Muthen40
Bootstrapping Standard Errors6-16-11  5:37 pmyezi15
Multi-group CFA with ceiling effects for 1 group4-11-12  1:12 pmLinda K. Muthen6
Chi-square value Mplus vs. Lisrel11-07-06  2:32 pmBengt O. Muthen4
G Theory and SEM11-29-06  10:50 amLinda K. Muthen12
Fit indices for CFA with categorical indicators12-01-06  9:48 amLinda K. Muthen2
Formative (causal) measurement model1-06-13  5:23 pmBengt O. Muthen15
Correlate errors in CFA12-03-06  10:01 amLinda K. Muthen2
DIFFTEST8-07-13  10:40 amLinda K. Muthen29
Why does number of indicators affect chi-square?12-06-06  8:47 amLinda K. Muthen3
CFI/TLI/RMSEA12-14-06  11:14 amLinda K. Muthen7
"type=missing" and MLM9-30-13  10:44 amLinda K. Muthen8
Maximum number of variables6-05-08  7:55 amLinda K. Muthen6
Standardized estimates of residual covariances11-13-09  7:55 pmBengt O. Muthen5
Fixing factor loadings to zero6-24-13  12:05 pmGwo-Bao Liou9
Probit coefficient1-17-07  9:09 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA with dyadic data6-20-13  7:50 amLinda K. Muthen15
CFA with COVARIANCE data BY Groups1-23-07  6:05 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Semi-continuous items6-30-11  10:16 amLinda K. Muthen8
Error message parameter 36 (?)2-06-07  1:51 amAngela Buchholz3
Errors2-13-07  1:24 pmLinda K. Muthen2
CFA with count variables?2-17-07  6:52 amLinda K. Muthen2
Degrees of freedom2-24-07  6:59 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multigroup CFA with Dichotomous Variables7-03-13  10:28 amLinda K. Muthen4
CFA for to-level data3-09-07  8:17 amLinda K. Muthen2
Standardization 9-28-13  2:34 pmLinda K. Muthen28
Multigroup factor analysis with summary data9-25-08  9:59 pmBengt O. Muthen9
CFA and Rasch model3-26-07  8:46 amLinda K. Muthen2
How to order standardized var-cov residual4-03-07  2:25 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Factor analysis and distal outcomes4-05-07  8:09 amLinda K. Muthen2
MODEL COVERAGE and MODEL CONSTRAINT4-10-07  5:20 pmLinda K. Muthen2
CFA of Symptom inventory4-20-07  9:01 amLinda K. Muthen2
General4-24-07  10:19 amLinda K. Muthen4
MTMM Multi-group5-03-07  4:32 amBert Weijters1
Test of equal sigmas5-08-07  7:50 amLinda K. Muthen2
MLR 2-23-10  10:48 amTihomir Asparouhov8
Estimation of factor means5-07-13  2:09 pmBengt O. Muthen12
Multi group Second order CFA7-08-13  10:47 amDiane Putnick22
Modification Indices6-06-07  8:19 amLinda K. Muthen2
Outputting a Variable?6-07-07  8:19 amLinda K. Muthen2
Matrix6-12-07  10:17 amYu Kyoum Kim4
Construct unidimensionality6-25-07  9:04 amLinda K. Muthen2
Testing Equality of Covariance Matrices6-26-07  9:28 amLinda K. Muthen2
Compare factor means across two groups6-28-07  9:53 amLinda K. Muthen2
Fit indices with categorial and/or weight option7-06-07  7:27 amLinda K. Muthen2
Measurement invariance1-20-12  9:06 amLinda K. Muthen8
Confidence Intervals for RMSEA (Other than 90%)4-05-12  7:25 amKK7
ML Fit Function and SaveData10-06-13  10:03 amLinda K. Muthen4
Robust Procdure??????7-30-07  6:01 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Perfect goodness of fit2-24-10  1:01 pmLinda K. Muthen8
Empty Bivariate Table is not equal to 1?8-22-12  9:23 amLinda K. Muthen12
Identification Problem / Second Order Factor Model8-16-07  9:38 amStefanie Exler3
Factorial invariance8-23-07  11:16 amLinda K. Muthen5
Factor scores in SPSS vs. Mplus4-23-13  6:24 amBengt O. Muthen12
New to Mplus - how to use modification indices?4-23-12  12:35 pmLinda K. Muthen4
CFA with Constraints10-14-11  12:18 pmLinda K. Muthen8
Identification problem10-05-07  9:05 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA of An Unusual Scale10-09-07  7:06 amJon Elhai3
CFA Testing Model Constraints10-10-07  6:14 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Different WRMR values with the same code11-06-07  1:48 pmMagnus Svensson5
Using vars with differing numbers of categories10-15-07  4:23 pmLinda K. Muthen4
CFA ascii file dataset question10-17-07  2:13 pmLinda K. Muthen5
Second-Order Factor Model10-20-07  9:10 amThomas A. Schmitt3
Testing bivariate normal assumption3-29-11  5:55 pmBengt O. Muthen6
No goodness of fit10-30-07  12:59 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Question re: handling replications of items in CFM11-19-07  7:19 amLinda K. Muthen9
Two CFA models from one dataset12-11-07  9:52 amLinda K. Muthen2
Direct effects in CFA model12-17-07  11:03 amShang-Min Liu5
Significance of CFA factor loadings12-30-07  7:40 amLinda K. Muthen2
Logit regression12-31-07  2:21 pmLinda K. Muthen4
MIMIC4-02-12  10:59 amLinda K. Muthen13
Differences between LISREL and M+ outputs2-08-08  6:27 amLinda K. Muthen2
Fixing correlations in a CFA6-21-13  6:30 pmBengt O. Muthen12
How to get the plot in CFA ?3-13-08  8:52 amLinda K. Muthen2
How to get more fit index3-11-09  5:24 pmLinda K. Muthen8
Temporal Invariance2-03-09  2:54 pmLinda K. Muthen12
Power analysis for CFA of large scale3-22-08  12:33 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Second-order factor model3-22-08  9:25 amLinda K. Muthen2
What does "PARAMETER 93" mean?3-23-08  6:58 amLinda K. Muthen4
Data read problems3-25-08  8:31 amLinda K. Muthen2
Factor scores7-03-13  2:46 pmBengt O. Muthen6
Measurement Invariance2-24-11  8:31 amLinda K. Muthen14
Bianary outcome variables and CFA 4-01-08  3:48 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Various types of indicators4-03-08  12:58 pmHongbo Wang5
Fit statistics and factor loadings6-25-10  8:15 amLinda K. Muthen8
Factor loadings4-15-08  1:14 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Possible to have too many factors?4-18-08  10:56 amPeter Ji0
Minimum Number of Indicators per factor4-18-08  10:56 amPeter Ji0
Should EFA Results be the same as CFA Results?4-18-08  10:57 amPeter Ji0
Bifactor Model Problems9-15-13  8:38 pmLinda K. Muthen32
Correction for non-independent observations6-10-08  3:59 pmLinda K. Muthen6
WLSMV and RMSEA6-22-09  5:30 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Error Message "variance for latent variable"7-12-08  6:59 amJannine Nieto0
Simulation using estimates from a MIMIC model7-18-08  5:07 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Second factor reverses sign of parameter8-16-08  9:37 amLinda K. Muthen2
Model fit with both binary & continuous indicators12-02-09  4:47 pmAMY TIAN-FOREMAN4
Modification indices in MC simulation8-28-08  10:16 amLinda K. Muthen2
Diff test single and 2nd order factor7-03-12  10:23 amLinda K. Muthen10
MTMM8-22-12  9:18 amJamie Marincic9
Error message9-03-12  3:01 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Inconsistant fit9-25-08  10:00 pmBengt O. Muthen2
"by" or "on" ?10-03-08  10:59 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA for measure validation10-06-08  3:15 amIoanna Vrouva5
Plotting DIF in MIMC10-09-08  8:24 pmTom Hildebrandt7
Discrepancy among the fit indices10-23-08  11:16 amRobert Urban3
CFA with categorical data10-27-08  4:46 amSophie van der SLuis0
Second order factor problem10-28-08  3:03 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Fit indices with inconsistent results11-03-08  8:02 amLinda K. Muthen2
Paper: MLE in general latent variable modeling11-13-08  11:05 amLinda K. Muthen5
MLM mean adjustment11-19-08  6:33 pmBengt O. Muthen2
How MPLUS Computes Factor Scores12-12-12  7:15 pmBengt O. Muthen12
Correlation between latent variables8-18-09  4:46 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Factor determinacy with categorical predictors?1-01-09  11:47 amBengt O. Muthen3
Decimals1-08-09  6:07 pmLinda K. Muthen3
Optimal system requirements1-23-09  6:18 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Not positive definite error message1-24-09  5:50 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Raykov's scale reliability estimate3-16-13  12:16 pmBengt O. Muthen6
Latent factor output1-30-09  3:25 pmMichael Wagner0
Multi-group CFA with ordinal, complex data2-06-09  3:41 pmLinda K. Muthen4
CFA and FIML2-06-09  11:08 amLinda K. Muthen4
General specific factor model2-06-09  11:13 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA: setting varibles to 12-09-09  11:39 amEric Green3
MODEL statements in MCFA2-13-09  8:16 amLinda K. Muthen4
Covariance pb in CFA of categorical with MLR2-19-09  7:04 amLinda K. Muthen2
ULS in Amos vs. WLS in MPLUS2-21-09  8:38 amLinda K. Muthen6
Monte Carlo with CFA and multiple groups3-03-13  10:35 amLinda K. Muthen8
Constraining covariances2-21-09  9:41 amAlbert E. Mannes3
Number of observations3-09-09  12:35 pmIoanna Vrouva3
LM test for multi-group analysis?3-12-09  5:33 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Measurement invariance over time and attrition3-16-09  9:54 amSebastian Grümer3
Factors with only one variable3-20-09  11:01 amBengt O. Muthen4
Significance issue bw delta & theta5-25-12  6:54 pmLinda K. Muthen8
CFA with non-normal continuous data3-23-09  7:02 pmBengt O. Muthen4
CFA with only formative indicators...4-02-09  3:51 amYu-Shan Chang0
Confusing error message about sampling weights 4-13-09  2:55 pmLinda K. Muthen6
2pl correlations5-04-09  9:05 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multigroup cfa for a lot of groups and subgroups8-14-13  2:51 pmemmanuel bofah23
Saving CFA estimates6-11-09  5:37 amLinda K. Muthen4
Modeling cross-loadings in Monte Carlo3-21-11  12:59 pmLinda K. Muthen6
500+ limitation on variables?5-25-09  10:21 amLinda K. Muthen2
Non-significant intercept5-27-09  11:09 amLinda K. Muthen2
IRT: Item discrimination parameter =1 (logit)?7-25-11  2:20 pmLinda K. Muthen7
Fixing error term according to known reliability6-03-09  12:12 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Multiple group analysis for second-order factors6-11-09  4:28 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Excessice multivariate Kurtosis6-14-09  10:33 amBengt O. Muthen2
DIFFTEST (one vs two factor model)6-14-09  10:34 amBengt O. Muthen2
Monte Carlo ordinal CFA y* total variance6-17-09  2:16 pmLinda K. Muthen6
Multigroup comparison in CFA6-16-09  8:17 amLinda K. Muthen4
Factor mean differences9-03-13  7:16 amLinda K. Muthen18
IRT with screening questions4-01-10  10:24 amBengt O. Muthen6
Testing of configural invariance7-27-09  11:03 amLinda K. Muthen3
Variance of a higher-order factor is negative 7-30-09  5:47 amLinda K. Muthen9
Constraining standardized uniqueness7-28-09  8:29 amLinda K. Muthen2
Test theory and factor analysis8-02-09  10:52 amAmir Sariaslan3
Area under aggregate information curve in IRT 8-04-09  9:19 amLinda K. Muthen2
Surprising Modification Indices8-04-09  5:11 pmLinda K. Muthen2
MLR Fit indices8-05-09  1:29 pmPatricia Kantor4
Z scores as factor indicators8-07-09  7:20 amLinda K. Muthen2
Factor scores with missing value8-10-09  10:07 amLinda K. Muthen2
Anchor points in scales8-11-09  11:11 amLinda K. Muthen2
Implied covariance matrix2-08-11  6:03 amLinda K. Muthen6
Output factor scores with ID variable?9-15-09  4:51 pmWouter Steenbeek3
Significance12-06-10  3:20 pmLinda K. Muthen8
Type of CFA - fscores output9-24-09  10:54 amLinda K. Muthen2
SE for factor scores?9-28-09  8:39 amLinda K. Muthen2
Power for multi-group CFA9-28-09  8:09 amThomas Frazier0
Running a CFA from correlation matrix10-02-09  5:36 amUta Bindl0
CFA in Type Complex vs Type twolevel10-04-09  9:20 amLinda K. Muthen2
Within subjects measurement invariance testing?10-14-09  6:01 amLinda K. Muthen2
Residual Bootstrap with Weight Variable10-20-09  11:19 amLinda K. Muthen2
Convergence problem in multigroup analysis10-23-09  6:24 amLinda K. Muthen2
Mplus vs Lisrel10-23-09  6:24 amLinda K. Muthen2
Simulation using factor loading matrix--possible?10-26-09  9:12 amLinda K. Muthen2
Standardized model results3-06-12  12:11 pmLinda K. Muthen8
SEM with a nominal dependent variable10-28-09  6:26 amLinda K. Muthen2
SE of factor scores11-03-09  1:51 amAnders Skarlind3
Role of Cronbach's alpha in scale development11-07-09  11:54 amLinda K. Muthen4
Multivariate nonnormality11-14-09  7:06 amIoanna Vrouva3
Perfect fit statistics11-10-09  6:53 amLinda K. Muthen2
MPlus means not consistent with SPSS11-16-09  6:53 amLinda K. Muthen2
MG-CFA with covariance matrices: Number of groups?11-23-09  9:30 amLinda K. Muthen2
Comparing models across response distributions3-04-10  9:51 amLinda K. Muthen4
CFA with an observed variable factor11-24-09  9:58 amLinda K. Muthen2
Type=rand;11-26-09  8:12 amLinda K. Muthen2
Comparing item estimates in Multiple Group IRT3-22-13  2:45 pmLinda K. Muthen26
Model fit without chi square1-07-10  1:43 pmLinda K. Muthen10
Higher-Order Confirmatory FA7-08-12  10:48 amMorayo Ayodele6
CFA: Correlation > 1 for latent variables12-09-09  5:24 pmLinda K. Muthen2
How to interpret Mplus output12-10-09  11:34 amLinda K. Muthen4
SEs of parameter estimates problem12-10-09  2:33 pmWilliam Welch0
Nonlinear constraints for loading DIF1-12-10  9:22 amLinda K. Muthen2
Factor analysis on day-level1-12-10  9:24 amLinda K. Muthen2
2nd order factor model Typ II1-21-10  9:56 amLinda K. Muthen4
CFA in two samples1-26-10  10:15 amLinda K. Muthen4
To use binary rating system(0-1) in CFA1-29-10  11:49 pmLeyla Khalili0
CFA Standardized Loadings greater than 12-06-10  4:38 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Analysing imputated mupltiple group data2-08-10  7:51 amPark Jungkyu0
Non positive definite and fit statistics2-10-10  4:50 pmBengt O. Muthen2
SAVEDATA factor score6-16-11  9:46 amBengt O. Muthen9
Model Fit Index WRMR11-22-11  10:24 amLinda K. Muthen8
Testing within-subjects diff' in factor means2-12-10  10:17 amLinda K. Muthen2
Chi-Square difference testing with WLSMV2-12-10  9:32 amLinda K. Muthen2
TLI > 12-19-10  10:26 amLinda K. Muthen2
How to get fit index when the sample size is large2-20-10  6:00 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Effects coding method of identification7-28-11  2:51 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Nested Model Error3-01-10  5:24 pmLinda K. Muthen6
Chi-square in MPlus vs. Amos9-17-13  5:12 pmRachel Kane6
Esimator for the v.2.02 of mplus3-03-10  8:23 amLinda K. Muthen4
I can't get the list function to work3-08-10  10:30 amJon Heron3
Multi-group CFA - good fit, but n.s. estimates3-10-10  9:58 amLinda K. Muthen4
Interpreting probit regression coefficients in CFA3-15-10  5:45 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Standard error of factor score4-11-10  8:58 amLinda K. Muthen4
Local independence4-14-10  1:12 pmBengt O. Muthen2
An idea5-04-10  10:11 amLinda K. Muthen4
Outliers in CFA5-05-10  8:37 amLinda K. Muthen2
Error message5-08-10  7:38 amLinda K. Muthen4
SAVEDATA5-10-10  9:26 amLinda K. Muthen6
Measurement Invariance - Constraints3-19-12  6:34 pmLinda K. Muthen10
When should you add factor loadings?5-15-10  8:05 amLinda K. Muthen4
SAVEDATA: ESTIMATES record layout6-16-10  9:25 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multilevel CFA with ordinal variables6-23-10  12:52 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Problematic indicator reliability?7-08-10  10:09 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multiple Group Analysis - Problem building factors7-22-10  3:26 amakiko tanabe5
Standardized Residuals (z-scores) for Covariances11-11-10  9:17 amBengt O. Muthen6
Measurement Invariance testing8-04-10  6:35 amLinda K. Muthen6
Transfering Data8-03-10  9:02 amLinda K. Muthen4
CFA on measured var for Multi-Group Path Analysis?8-11-10  2:42 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Obtaining Additional Fit Indices10-26-10  5:42 pmBengt O. Muthen18
Freeing measurement errors8-21-10  9:44 amLinda K. Muthen2
Parceling dichotomous items8-23-10  8:06 amLinda K. Muthen2
Means for latent variables4-09-12  8:21 amLinda K. Muthen8
Outliers and model fit4-08-13  11:46 amLinda K. Muthen4
Second-order CFA in AMOS9-09-10  1:29 pmBeril Sayir0
Monte Carlo simulation9-15-10  6:59 pmGao Yan2
Adding Labels for Factors in the CFA Output9-22-10  5:34 amLinda K. Muthen7
CFA : empty cell warnings9-21-10  9:42 amLinda K. Muthen2
Latent mean partial invariance interpretation9-22-10  10:59 amLinda K. Muthen2
Problem estimating parameter 9-27-10  3:16 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Identification and Choice of Path Fixing12-07-10  8:01 amLinda K. Muthen4
2nd Order Formative Indicator9-30-10  12:17 pmLinda K. Muthen2
FSCORES - why has my variance changed?2-03-12  8:54 amLinda K. Muthen13
Second order ESEM4-22-12  2:11 pmLinda K. Muthen11
Second-order CFA among multiple groups2-01-11  12:53 pmLinda K. Muthen4
What does Mplus analyzed for CFA model10-17-10  6:23 pmLinda K. Muthen2
How to constrain the two factors to be equivalent10-19-10  9:48 amLinda K. Muthen4
Model fit between free and restricted model10-26-10  6:10 amLinda K. Muthen2
Marker Indicator @1 vs latent Variance@110-28-10  4:20 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Deviance information criterion10-29-10  4:44 pmTihomir Asparouhov2
Problems with Mplus Version 6.19-29-11  8:47 amLinda K. Muthen8
Examine a CFA model with simulated data11-03-10  3:09 pmLinda K. Muthen2
CFA with Bayesian estimation10-15-13  10:34 amLinda K. Muthen15
Obtaining additional decimal places11-07-12  7:10 amLinda K. Muthen4
MC sample size simulation with categorical data11-09-10  12:20 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Degrees of Freedom in "Baseline model" output11-24-10  9:14 amDmitriy Poznyak6
Modification Indices and Sample Size11-30-10  8:38 amLinda K. Muthen6
MI as a continuous function of age4-10-11  10:03 amBengt O. Muthen10
Generating an artificial data set through mplus12-26-10  8:01 pmMike C Parent2
Orthogonal indicators in simulation12-29-10  5:43 pmBengt O. Muthen5
Negative -2LL values2-01-11  2:08 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Rating scales - one source2-03-11  5:43 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Factors scores method2-06-11  10:47 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA when measures have different scales2-07-11  9:26 amLinda K. Muthen2
Factor score transformation to Rasch IRT W-scale2-16-11  6:14 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Adding syntax for default settings2-25-11  1:12 pmLinda K. Muthen4
CFA Warning Message3-13-12  6:31 amLinda K. Muthen10
Using MLR for factor invariance analysis3-04-11  10:55 amYunfei Wu0
Mplus CFI is smaller than LISREL's?8-25-11  7:11 amLinda K. Muthen12
Factor Mean Constraints in CFA3-17-11  6:45 amLinda K. Muthen2
Estimation of Scale Reliability Using Mplus3-20-11  5:37 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Higher-Order FA3-21-11  11:17 amsteve3
FSCOEFFICIENT matrix3-21-11  4:54 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Weird df coming out from CFA tests3-29-11  7:04 amTony Reed3
CFA4-02-11  2:12 pmLiz Woodruff3
Total SEM novice4-02-11  4:42 pmLinda K. Muthen4
No convergence. # of iterations exceeded4-27-13  6:24 amLinda K. Muthen14
Constraining residual variance4-22-11  10:32 amLiz Woodruff10
Empty cell in bivariate table4-10-11  10:08 amLinda K. Muthen4
Steps in MGCFA with continuous variables4-17-11  5:03 amMary Teresa Granillo4
Multiple measurements of the same subject in CFA4-11-11  6:47 amLinda K. Muthen2
Strict Factorial Invariance in multigroup CFA8-16-13  12:18 pmLinda K. Muthen14
CFA with control variables4-28-11  11:05 amgibbon lab7
2PL parameters4-27-11  2:25 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Measurement model - selected observed variables4-28-11  10:29 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA all binary Variables10-14-13  12:05 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Some discrimination parameters equal in IRT5-09-11  6:30 amEvgenia 3
Generating out-of-sample factor scores5-11-11  12:09 pmTom Hanson3
Checking for acquiescence: correlation5-20-11  1:55 amDick Durver3
Factor Scores as Dependent Variables2-02-13  10:15 amLinda K. Muthen12
CFA fit indices2-15-13  10:41 amLinda K. Muthen21
Longitudinal Factor Analysis11-11-12  9:24 amJune Zhou17
CFA with nonlinear indicator6-14-11  5:39 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Multiple imputed CFA - standardized residuals?6-22-11  9:33 amLinda K. Muthen2
Discriminant Validity in Mplus5-28-12  12:22 pmLinda K. Muthen6
Analysis of means6-29-11  8:13 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Correlated Errors in CFA using ML6-29-11  8:21 amDallas5
Est./s.e. 999.000? 6-30-11  10:20 amLinda K. Muthen2
Saving residual scores7-01-11  8:19 amLinda K. Muthen2
"normal distribution"7-03-11  10:01 amLinda K. Muthen4
Outliers in CFA7-03-11  10:02 amLinda K. Muthen2
Chi-square value7-05-11  9:02 pmLinda K. Muthen4
AMOS and LISREL vs. Mplus7-26-11  9:02 pmDipali Rinker4
Fixing loading to zero vs. excluding an item7-26-11  12:48 pmLinda K. Muthen4
CFA with categorical data8-01-11  10:43 amLinda K. Muthen2
Estimating factor scores in categorical CFA8-04-11  6:31 amLinda K. Muthen2
Model Convergence8-04-11  2:33 pmJ.D. Haltigan3
Error message concerning categorical variables8-12-11  1:43 pmLinda K. Muthen2
MGA Syntax Question8-14-11  4:02 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Effect of multigroup CFA on RMSEA9-20-11  10:22 amLinda K. Muthen11
Modification Indices with WLSMV estimator8-24-11  11:01 pmNathan Alkemade3
CFI index8-22-11  3:05 pmLinda K. Muthen2
MCFM and structural model specification 8-23-11  8:18 amBengt O. Muthen5
Rotation + Loadings9-07-11  8:42 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Item errors correlate9-07-11  7:58 amLinda K. Muthen4
Summed Raw Scores as Latent Variables9-08-11  8:58 amNidhi Kohli3
Moderated factor loadings9-14-11  2:45 pmBengt O. Muthen5
Invariance of single-item constructs10-04-11  9:21 amLinda K. Muthen4
Variant latent means10-11-11  6:08 amLinda K. Muthen2
Censored variable10-21-11  12:23 amPatchara Popaitoon3
Comparing models in bayesian framework10-20-11  11:07 amHolmes Finch5
Output error - too many categories3-01-12  7:05 amEmily7
Correlations in Mplus7-17-12  5:58 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Syntax for second-order and bifactor CFA11-23-11  5:53 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Longitudinal measurement invariance11-29-11  2:02 pmMatthew Fuller5
SUBPOPULATION and MG/KNOWNCLASS12-01-11  12:38 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Factors scores 9-26-13  6:26 pmLinda K. Muthen18
Z scores of factor loadings and error variances12-01-11  10:18 amZeda Gibbs0
Simulation12-04-11  6:13 amLinda K. Muthen2
Saving residuals12-06-11  6:02 amLinda K. Muthen2
Reading a covariance matrix data file12-07-11  7:45 amKim Gower3
Usevariable12-07-11  11:48 amLinda K. Muthen2
MIMIC model and multigroup analysis12-10-11  5:39 pmBengt O. Muthen2
CFA with dichotomous outcome12-13-11  5:46 pmAnna Westin5
Interpret indicator intercepts in Longitudinal FA12-18-11  12:36 pmElisa3
Group Comparisons in cases of metric variance 12-20-11  7:37 amBruno Figueiredo Dam3
Data type for CFA analysis in Mplus3-13-12  4:38 amyezi3
Using sampling weights12-26-11  7:14 pmHadar Baharav3
Noncongeneric CFA model1-27-12  9:59 pmcathy labrish3
Parameterization1-26-12  4:10 pmBengt O. Muthen9
CFA with repeated measures2-22-12  3:36 pmBengt O. Muthen7
Construct discrimination validation3-10-12  9:32 amJames Gambrell3
Bifactor model3-09-12  4:08 pmLinda K. Muthen4
MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE3-14-12  5:50 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Detection of threshold differences3-18-12  9:39 amBengt O. Muthen5
Measurement invariance, freeing intercepts3-19-12  1:39 pmErin P3
Error No. 59 ?!3-25-12  8:32 amLinda K. Muthen2
Varying numbers of factors in MGCFA3-29-12  5:26 amThomas Klausch5
IRT scores3-28-12  4:46 amPhilippe Golay3
Strict Invariance3-28-12  1:47 pmJasonBurnett4
False claim: "Variance of zero"3-30-12  9:33 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multilevel CFA-- Between Level Factor Necessary?7-07-12  12:04 pmLinda K. Muthen8
ESEM6-05-12  11:40 amLinda K. Muthen13
Error message4-17-12  10:04 amEric Deemer0
Huge chi square but other fit indices perfect?4-22-12  2:13 pmLinda K. Muthen2
CFA + nonnormal Likert data5-02-12  9:38 amLinda K. Muthen4
SRMR fit index for order categorical data5-04-12  9:59 amLinda K. Muthen2
Mplus on Mac5-14-13  2:48 pmLinda K. Muthen2
MPLUS error message5-08-12  5:53 amLinda K. Muthen4
Semicontinuous Analysis and Gated Questions5-15-12  8:33 amBengt O. Muthen2
MSE5-19-12  11:09 amBengt O. Muthen9
Higher order and three correlated factors5-18-12  11:54 amLinda K. Muthen2
Distribution of latent factor(s)5-21-12  7:15 amcathrine pettersen3
Picture of model?5-18-12  1:55 pmSarah Phillips3
Exceeding character limit7-08-13  12:08 pmLinda K. Muthen7
Constraints5-26-12  3:12 pmEric Teman2
Degrees of freedom with multiple groups6-05-12  7:59 amPat Lo3
Covariates6-04-12  8:05 amSarah Phillips3
Syntax errors6-09-12  3:29 amIoanna Vrouva3
Correlation between factors6-12-12  6:15 amLinda K. Muthen5
Measurement invariance depedent samples6-06-12  10:53 amLinda K. Muthen2
2-tailed p-value6-12-12  1:45 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Interpretation6-13-12  6:18 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Low cfi6-18-12  7:22 amLinda K. Muthen2
Second order and bifactor8-01-13  8:23 amBengt O. Muthen15
Modification indices and different ML estimators6-25-12  5:38 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Multigroup CFA advice6-30-12  7:40 amMichael Rolt0
# of Free / Estimated Parameters in Mplus vs. Amos7-03-12  1:55 pmLinda K. Muthen2
About p value7-06-12  10:55 amJames Lee0
Positive and negative factor loadings in cfa7-18-12  8:26 amCathy Williams5
Reliability of a questionnaire7-18-12  6:12 amLinda K. Muthen4
How to obtain unstandardized factor score8-01-12  10:12 amLinda K. Muthen4
Help with CFA on longitudinal data8-07-12  8:36 amLinda K. Muthen2
Measurement invariance of 2nd-order factor8-20-12  9:02 amLinda K. Muthen2
Confirmatory Factor Analysis WITH statement8-20-12  2:19 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Error in analysis command9-05-12  6:13 amLinda K. Muthen4
Binary CFA vs IRT9-12-12  11:30 amBengt O. Muthen8
Testing two CFA models on the same sample9-10-12  6:56 pmBengt O. Muthen2
BIC index9-19-12  3:43 pmLinda K. Muthen4
The role of astericks on model fit9-22-12  3:32 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Binary Single Indicator Latent Variables9-27-12  4:32 amTom Booth7
Longitudinal CFA estimates to use in simulations9-25-12  1:52 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Longitudinal CFA with multicollinearity10-02-12  10:08 amLinda K. Muthen5
Multitrait multirater CFA w/ categorical outcomes9-27-12  9:09 amMark LaVenia5
Strong factor correlation and factor means9-28-12  12:54 pmLinda K. Muthen2
CFA design? 10-02-12  10:28 ammw5
Residual covariance of first-order factors10-02-12  10:13 amLinda K. Muthen3
Mixture CFA with different number of factors10-26-12  5:48 pmLinda K. Muthen7
Saving values in a separate file10-29-12  11:59 amLinda K. Muthen6
Positive and Negative factor loadings11-05-12  11:56 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multigroup multilevel CFA with ordinal indicators4-19-13  10:04 amLinda K. Muthen13
Measurement model11-29-12  12:09 pmBengt O. Muthen6
CFA with ordinal data12-03-12  8:35 pmBengt O. Muthen4
CFA with zero-inflated neg. binomial paths6-13-13  8:32 amLinda K. Muthen12
MGCFA: WLSMV12-03-12  10:27 amLinda K. Muthen3
Fit indices12-06-12  8:57 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multilevel CFA?12-26-12  8:50 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Saving separate array files1-03-13  11:34 amLinda K. Muthen4
Chi-square difference test is overpowered1-08-13  11:58 amBengt O. Muthen2
Longitudinal Monte Carlo Study1-20-13  10:09 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA1-31-13  4:27 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Dissimilar fit indices outcomes2-11-13  6:45 amLinda K. Muthen2
FSCORES not the same as factors2-11-13  10:39 amLinda K. Muthen2
Measurement Invariance Analyses3-02-13  6:38 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Measurement invariance with multigroups6-21-13  6:31 pmBengt O. Muthen8
Java9-26-13  10:15 amLinda K. Muthen7
Labeling correlated errors3-08-13  11:19 amLinda K. Muthen4
Implied Model Output from BSEM3-15-13  10:39 amTihomir Asparouhov2
Error output3-16-13  6:54 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Cross-validation in CFA3-25-13  2:42 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Multigroup Analysis in a within design3-27-13  11:03 amLinda K. Muthen4
Saving factor scores3-27-13  11:04 amLinda K. Muthen2
Error message multi-group3-28-13  7:25 amLinda K. Muthen2
Warning Message4-02-13  8:55 pmKerrie Wilkins3
Measurement invariance with trend design data4-04-13  6:13 amLinda K. Muthen4
Bifactor - negative loadings on group factor4-05-13  2:15 amPete Parkers5
Non-positive values in CFA4-04-13  5:55 pmToko Oshio5
Bootstrap standard errors4-08-13  5:23 amdavid 2
Validition sample command4-09-13  9:41 amLinda K. Muthen2
CFA. missing data by design (cat variables)4-10-13  3:50 pmLinda K. Muthen5
Nominal variable in CFA Example4-12-13  4:11 pmBengt O. Muthen5
Odd CFA results using MLR4-15-13  12:23 pmChris Coleman3
CFA method and reporting with categorical data4-17-13  1:11 pmLinda K. Muthen5
Correlated residuals among first-order factors?4-19-13  1:00 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Residual Variances in Multi-level CFA5-02-13  10:59 amLinda K. Muthen2
Factor correlation significant difference5-08-13  2:13 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Multivariate normality and scale chi squared test5-09-13  9:46 amLinda K. Muthen2
Bifactor CFA model 5-09-13  11:29 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multigroup CFA using modification indices6-06-13  10:55 amLinda K. Muthen5
Select Standardized Model Results for CFA 6-06-13  12:36 pmGwo-Bao Liou6
Select Standardized Model Results for CFA 6-03-13  3:50 pmGwo-Bao Liou0
Mean comparison in ESEM and CFA6-06-13  2:12 pmLinda K. Muthen10
Outputting factor score problem6-06-13  10:58 amLinda K. Muthen2
Testing Moderated Longitudinal Invariance6-18-13  2:55 pmBengt O. Muthen5
Two-parameter logistic IRT model, persons scores 6-21-13  3:26 pmLinda K. Muthen6
Error Message - Computing Standard Errors 6-24-13  11:27 amLinnie Green Wright3
Item Response Theory6-28-13  4:08 pmBengt O. Muthen5
CFA with count data6-28-13  3:48 pmBengt O. Muthen2
New invariance testing feature7-03-13  10:36 amLinda K. Muthen2
Multiple processors, CFA, imputed dataset7-10-13  5:21 pmLinda K. Muthen6
Plausible values7-11-13  1:21 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Satorra-Bentler Chi-Square Difference Test9-23-13  3:43 pmBengt O. Muthen4
Standardized and unstandardized esitimates8-01-13  10:17 amLinda K. Muthen16
Second-order and bifactor model7-31-13  9:26 amLinda K. Muthen2
Interpreting Probit Factor Loadings in CFA7-31-13  10:27 amLinda K. Muthen2
Cronbach's Alpha vs Composite Reliability8-02-13  7:46 amBengt O. Muthen2
Multigroup alignment method8-12-13  11:34 amLinda K. Muthen4
Multigroup CFA for dummies/beginners?8-15-13  2:25 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Corr>1 between second and first-order latent var8-15-13  8:41 amLinda K. Muthen2
Error message8-22-13  6:37 amLinda K. Muthen3
High error variance8-29-13  11:03 amLinda K. Muthen4
Three-level CFA?9-16-13  4:08 pmLinda K. Muthen4
Does not get the correct no. of observation9-11-13  10:36 amEstee3
Standardized regression weights9-11-13  3:23 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Measurement invariance9-13-13  5:24 pmBengt O. Muthen2
Comparing latent means9-17-13  7:11 amLinda K. Muthen4
CFA with different response options9-16-13  2:14 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Basic stats before the CFA9-23-13  6:55 amLinda K. Muthen2
Different results from different versions9-28-13  12:04 pmLinda K. Muthen2
How to obtain factor score weight in Mplus10-08-13  9:34 amLinda K. Muthen5
Scaling issues for surveys in a CFA10-08-13  9:45 amLinda K. Muthen2
Chi-square difference test for MG10-11-13  10:31 amLinda K. Muthen5
Bayes Factor for Complex Model10-16-13  11:35 amTihomir Asparouhov2
Ordinal CFA with Imputed Data10-16-13  3:54 pmLinda K. Muthen2
Data cohort command10-21-13  2:57 pmLinda K. Muthen2
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